Today we look at the wages paid to oarsmen on warships in ancient Athens in 450BC.
Why on earth would I want to do such a thing?
Because it tells us a great deal about the silver price today
Subscribe to MoneyWeek
Subscribe to MoneyWeek today and get your first six magazine issues absolutely FREE
How wages in ancient Athens compare to today
The Economy of Ancient Greece
A kilo of silver today is about £460, so nine years' skilled labour would amount to about £12,000 in today's money. That makes a year's skilled labour about £1,333, and a day's £5.29.
Fast forward to today. The average wage in the UK construction industry, which I'll use as an equivalent, is about £30,000 per annum, or £120 per day. It seems that today's British labourer is earning considerably more than his ancient Athenian counterpart.
We must, however, factor taxation into our calculations in order to appreciate what the worker actually took home with him. Enlightened souls that they were, there was no direct taxation on income in ancient Greece. The large part of the expenses of the city were shouldered by the rich, who made their donations voluntarily sort of through the system of liturgy.
In the UK today, on the other hand, somewhere between 40% and 55% of the average worker's income is taken, one way or the other, to pay for the state, depending on whose figures you use (and that's before you factor in inflation taxes).
For the sake of simplicity, let's use a 40% figure and go with an after-tax income of £72 per day or £18,000 per annum. So even after taxes, the modern labourer would seem to be earning considerably more than the ancient over ten times as much.
As Greece was the most advanced civilisation in 450BC, perhaps we should only be comparing it to the developed world. But even if we factor in less developed nations, the modern worker appears to be earning more than the ancient.
Globally, according to the United Nations International Labour Organisation (ILO), the average salary is $18,000 say £14,000, or £56 per day. That would be £34 after 40% taxes.
An Athenian warship, the trireme, cost about a talent to build (£12,000). A trireme's unskilled oarsman would be paid 4.3g of silver each per day (£2). The cost of building the Parthenon was 469 talents, according to Professor Thomas Sakoulas. That works out, according to my maths (469 x 26 x 460) at about £5.6m. The cost of building the Shard, by way of comparison, seems to have been around £435m.
Silver is dirt cheap compared to the past few thousand years
The Babylonian worker might have been looking at 2g of silver (92p). The Roman unskilled worker, like the Greek, might have been on around 4.2gs of silver, at least until Romans started chipping their coins.
The wages of the mediaeval English worker seemed to have fallen back towards Babylonian levels by 1300. He got 2.8g, while a skilled city craftsman might have expected 5.6g about half what an Athenian was paid.
That would grow, however, over the next 500 years, until by the 19th century the skilled labourer might be looking at around 24g of silver per day, according to author David Zucherman, and an unskilled between a third and half that. The labourer in the 19th century was getting around double the pay of his 450BC Athenian counterpart. It's more, but it's not that much more.
Compare that to today. I used the figure of £30,000 earlier the average wage of a construction worker £120 per day. That amounts to 260g of silver, compared to 11.5g for that Athenian worker. Todays pay dwarfs that of any pre-20th century worker in history.
Wages have risen, of course they have but not by this much relative to the cost of living, status and so on within a society.
The issue is not that wages have soared. It's that silver now that it no longer has any monetary role has fallen to absurdly cheap (on a historical basis) levels. (It's also absurdly cheap on a geological basis, as I argued here).
If today's wages of £120 were to equal the Athenian equivalent of 11.5g (say 12g for simplicity's sake), you could make the argument that silver should be £10 per gramme (currently 46p per gramme). That's over 20 times higher than today's silver price of $18.50 an ounce more like $400 per ounce.
At $400 per ounce, not only do wages correspond, but so does the cost of building a ship or a landmark city building.
One day we will get some kind of silver reversion to its historical mean. Does that mean we should all go out and buy shedloads of silver with the expectation of making 20 times our money?
Not really. That day of historical mean reversion probably won't come in our lifetime and most of us invest within three to five year time frames. But you should all own a little bit, just in case it does.
Dominic Frisby (“mercurially witty” – the Spectator) is the world’s only financial writer and comedian. He is MoneyWeek’s main commentator on gold, commodities, currencies and cryptocurrencies. He is the author of the books Bitcoin: the Future of Money? and Life After The State. He also co-wrote the documentary Four Horsemen, and presents the chat show, Stuff That Interests Me.
His show 2016 Let’s Talk About Tax was a huge hit at the Edinburgh Festival and Penguin Random House have since commissioned him to write a book on the subject – Daylight Robbery – the past, present and future of tax will be published later this year. His 2018 Edinburgh Festival show, Dominic Frisby's Financial Gameshow, won rave reviews. Dominic was educated at St Paul's School, Manchester University and the Webber-Douglas Academy Of Dramatic Art.
You can follow him on Twitter @dominicfrisby
Is your property your pension?
House price growth has slowed, latest stats show – but is this a wake up call for homeowners relying on their property for retirement?
By Marc Shoffman Published
Inheritance tax receipts hit a record year as it hits £3.2bn
HMRC is collecting more and more in inheritance tax due to fiscal drag. We explain how you can minimise your bill.
By Pedro Gonçalves Published