Don’t buy the hedge-fund hype

Hedge funds have a habit of turning clients’ money into their own money, says Max King. Steer clear.

952_MW_P18_Funds
Ackman's Pershing Square isn't really a hedge fund

Hedge funds have existed for many decades, but it was in the late 1990s and the early years of the new millennium that they first attracted popular attention. Stripped bare, hedge funds are just flexible investment funds that seek to provide consistent long-term returns while protecting their investors from the volatility of financial markets. The popular perception, however, is far more alluring.

Hedge funds, operating from discreet offices in Mayfair, Geneva and Manhattan, promoted themselves as exclusive investment clubs taking financial innovation to the limit. They made use of financial instruments and strategies such as futures, options and short-selling (betting on a price decline by borrowing an asset and selling it in the hope of buying it back more cheaply later). They jumped between equities, bonds, currencies, commodities and assets such as carbon permits beyond the horizon of conventional investors. And by swinging from heavy borrowing to accumulating piles of cash, from "net long" to "net short", they opened up new dimensions of investment.

Returns from the successful funds (the only ones you heard about) were spectacular, apparently justifying the huge fees, conventionally "two & 20", a 2% annual management fee and a 20% levy on all gains. Private banks, endowment funds and the rich queued up to invest, with the hoi polloi excluded by high minimum investments and their being open only to "sophisticated" investors, given that they operated offshore and outside financial-market regulations. This added to their mystique.

Hedge funds rely on luck, not skill

As the returns rolled in, assets and the number of funds kept growing. New managers, eager for the lucrative fees, cast their nets wider to haul in investors. Pension funds, happy to sacrifice market returns in the good years for downside protection in the bad ones, piled in. Investment trusts managed by hedge fund "masters of the universe" were floated on the stockmarket to allow "unsophisticated" investors in. But when exclusive clubs for the rich open their doors to all passers-by, it's best to walk past quickly. Funds found it increasingly difficult to generate positive returns while avoiding losses as a growing amount of capital chased after a fixed amount of market inefficiency. The composite index of performance compiled by Hedge Fund Research has underperformed the S&P500 Index for ten years in a row, with respective average annual returns of 4.2% and 13.7%.

Hedge funds can give pedestrian returns

Hedge-fund managers have been proficient at turning their clients' money into their own. Mark Dampier of Hargreaves Lansdown describes them as "glorified gambling funds that take absurd performance fees from investors when they occasionally do well, and then close when the going gets tough". Steer well clear: only the managers get rich.

Recommended

Gold has had a tough start to 2021, but we’ve been here before
Gold

Gold has had a tough start to 2021, but we’ve been here before

Gold has had a disappointing start to the year – in an increasingly digital world, it’s the ultimate analogue asset. Nevertheless, says Dominic Frisby…
20 Jan 2021
Gold’s strong start to the new year
Gold

Gold’s strong start to the new year

Gold has raced off the starting blocks for 2021, hitting a two-month high on Monday.
7 Jan 2021
The MoneyWeek Podcast: let's talk about bubbles
Stockmarkets

The MoneyWeek Podcast: let's talk about bubbles

Merryn and John talk about the many obvious signs of a bubble in certain assets, including tech stocks, TikTok, and stock-trading 12-year olds. It's c…
22 Jan 2021
Inflation is the easiest way out of this – just don’t expect politicians to admit it
Inflation

Inflation is the easiest way out of this – just don’t expect politicians to admit it

The UK government borrowed £34.1bn in December, a record amount for that month. Britain's debt pile now amounts to 100% of GDP. How are we going to pa…
22 Jan 2021

Most Popular

Why we won’t see a house-price crash in 2021
House prices

Why we won’t see a house-price crash in 2021

Lockdown sent house prices berserk as cooped up home-workers fled for bigger properties in the country. And while they won’t rise quite as much this y…
18 Jan 2021
Inflation is the easiest way out of this – just don’t expect politicians to admit it
Inflation

Inflation is the easiest way out of this – just don’t expect politicians to admit it

The UK government borrowed £34.1bn in December, a record amount for that month. Britain's debt pile now amounts to 100% of GDP. How are we going to pa…
22 Jan 2021
When will the US stockmarket bubble burst?
US stockmarkets

When will the US stockmarket bubble burst?

With US stocks more expensive than before the Wall Street crash of 1929, there are growing signs of “mania”. But what will push markets over the edge?
22 Jan 2021