Richard III is a tragedy written by Shakespeare covering the rise and fall of Richard, Duke of Gloucester (Richard III). Richard manipulates his way to the crown, systematically eliminating his rivals and arranging for the murder of his young nephews, the rightful heirs to the throne.
However, he is defeated by Richmond (Henry VII) at the Battle of Bosworth. Henry then marries Richard’s niece Elizabeth, thus ending the Wars of the Roses. The play has been adapted for the screen several times; Laurence Olivier and Ian McKellen (pictured) are among those who have played Richard.
The key moment
At the end of the play the tide has turned against Richard and his forces, and he is reduced to staggering around the battlefield looking for a way to get back into the action. Spurning the advice to retreat, Richard utters what are perhaps the most memorable lines of the play: “A horse, a horse! My kingdom for a horse!” Shortly afterwards, he dies in battle at the hands of the Earl of Richmond, who becomes Henry VII.
Lesson for investors
Richard’s offer to trade his kingdom for a horse illustrates how his power and titles were useless if he couldn’t deal with his immediate problem of finding a horse. This highlights the problem of liquidity. Investors sometimes find themselves caught in a market panic and unable to get out, so they will give almost anything to escape. They often have to accept a price far below the intrinsic value of an asset.
A big fortune and plenty of experience are no good if your money is locked away and dwindling because it is trapped in an illiquid market. Beware of tiny, volatile markets, diversify your investments and keep some cash in your portfolio so you’re not too exposed to the sharp up- and downswings of one investment.
Other financial wisdom
During the battle Richard exhibits classic signs of overconfidence, dismissing Richmond as “a milk-sop, one that never in his life/Felt so much cold as over shoes in snow?” Similarly, instead of accepting defeat, and a comfortable life in exile, he doubles down and plunges into the fray for one last attempt to kill his nemesis. Overconfident investors underestimate danger and keep dabbling in risky assets instead of cutting their losses if things go wrong.